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Johnny and Ginger Mercer papers

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Johnny and Ginger Mercer papers

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Johnny and Ginger Mercer:

A Guide to Their Papers at Georgia State University Library

Georgia State University
Georgia State University
Special Collections and Archives
100 Decatur St., SE
Atlanta, GA 30303-3202
Fax: 404-413-2881

February 2002

Profile Description

Creation: Text converted and initial EAD tagging provided by Apex Data Services, February 2002.
Language: English

Collection Summary

Repository: Georgia State University Library, Special Collections and Archives, Atlanta
Creator: Mercer, Johnny 1909-
Title: Johnny and Ginger Mercer papers
Dates: 1925-circa 1992
Extent4 linear ft. in 9 document boxes, 1 artifact box and 1 oversize box
Identification: M002

Scope and Content of the Papers

The Johnny and Ginger Mercer Papers contain manuscripts, photographs, sheet music, recordings, printed materials, and memorabilia documenting the early careers (1920s through about 1931) of both Johnny and Ginger Mercer; their courtship and marriage (1930 and 1931); and Johnny Mercer's career as a songwriter, performer, and businessman as it continued after their marriage; Johnny Mercer's work as a lyricist. Other topics covered in the Papers include Johnny Mercer's Savannah roots, including information about his parents, siblings, and other relatives; Ginger Mercer's family; the family that Johnny and Ginger established in California, with their children Amanda and Jeff; and Ginger Mercer's life and activities following her husband's death.

The Johnny and Ginger Mercer Papers (accession number M002) were acquired by Georgia State University in 1995, nearly 14 years after Mrs. Mercer donated to GSU the Johnny Mercer Papers (M001). The Johnny Mercer Papers (M001) originated in Mercer's studio, housed in an outbuilding at the couple's Bel-Air home; they focus more on Johnny Mercer's professional activities, although his family and personal life are also represented. The Johnny and Ginger Mercer Papers (M002), on the other hand, were housed in the living quarters of the Mercer's Bel-Air home, and although they document Johnny Mercer's career and professional activities, they also include more materials relating to the personal lives of both Johnny and Ginger Mercer.

Oversize items and non-manuscript materials, including photographs, books, artifacts, sheet music, and recordings, have been separated from the rest of the collection. Photographs, books, sheet music and recordings are indexed separately. Books are also listed at the end of this finding aid, along with artifacts and oversize materials. Researchers should note that the books in this collection were received by GSU in 1995, nearly 19 years after Johnny Mercer's death. Although all of them came from the homes that Ginger and Johnny Mercer had owned and lived in, other individuals had visited and resided in the homes during the years following Mercer's death. Therefore it is not possible to absolutely confirm which books were acquired or used by the Mercers during Johnny Mercer's life, as opposed to books that may have been added to the collection at a later date, perhaps by friends, relatives, or visitors.

Biographies of Johnny and Ginger Mercer

Biography of Johnny Mercer

John Herndon Mercer (1909-1976), a native of Savannah, Georgia, began writing songs at the age of fifteen and eventually became one of the foremost figures of 20th century American popular music. His catalog includes many numbers that have become American classics, and his activities as lyricist, composer, performer and businessman span a period of nearly five decades.

Mercer was born on November 18, 1909 to real estate investor George A. Mercer and his wife Lillian (Ciucevich). He spent his childhood and youth in Savannah, growing up in a household where music was much in evidence (despite the fact that no one in the family was especially "musical") and in a region where the local culture combined the rich literary and language traditions of both white and black Southerners. In later years, fans and observers noted the traces of this Southern heritage still evident in his writing. In 1922, at age 13, he continued the family educational tradition by joining his brothers at Woodberry Forest School in Virginia. Mercer received his last formal education during his five years at Woodberry; he did not continue on to college after leaving the school in 1927.

After leaving school Mercer worked in his father's business before traveling to New York as an actor with a Little Theatre group that had entered a competition for one-act plays. He received favorable notices for his performances, determined to return to New York to pursue an acting career, and returned the following year to spend 1929 and 1930 trying to establish himself as an actor. He continued writing songs during this time (he had written his first song at age 15 while a student at Woodberry Forest). When told that casting for the Garrick Gaieties of 1930 was complete but that the show still needed songs, he supplied "Out of Breath And Scared To Death of You." The song was included in the show, marking the start of his career as a professional songwriter.

From this beginning Mercer went on to become one of America's major songwriters of the 1930s to the 1960s, often writing tunes as well as lyrics, despite his lack of formal musical training. He worked primarily in New York through the early 30s, writing for such shows as Pajama Lady and Americana, producing the hit "Lazybones" with songwriter Hoagy Carmichael in 1933, and collaborating with various other writers including Harold Arlen, "Yip" Harburg, Bernard Hanighen and Matty Malneck. A 1935 offer from RKO for Mercer to write and act in two films prompted him to move to the west coast. There his talents proved to be perfectly suited for work with the flood of Hollywood musicals produced during the following decade.

Mercer's work in Hollywood resulted in a remarkable record of hit songs. During the decade between 1936 and 1946 his catalog grew to include "I'm An Old Cowhand From The Rio Grande," "Too Marvelous For Words," "Hooray for Hollywood," "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby," "Jeepers, Creepers," "Day In-Day Out," "Blues In The Night," Skylark," "That Old Black Magic," "Tangerine," "Accentuate The Positive," "Dream," "On the Atchison, Topeka And The Santa Fe" (Academy Award winner, 1946), "Laura," and "Come Rain Or Come Shine," written with a series of collaborators that included Richard Whiting, Bernard Hanighen, Harry Warren, Rube Bloom, Harold Arlen, Hoagy Carmichael, Victor Schertzinger and David Raksin.

Although his Hollywood acting career never developed beyond the initial contract with RKO, Mercer was active as a performer from the 1930s on, singing first with Paul Whiteman's band, where he was paired vocally with Jack Teagarden and served as master of ceremonies, songwriter and arranger. He began recording with Bing Crosby in the 1940s and was active during World War II as a favorite Armed Forces entertainer, performing on G. I. radio shows and producing such topical numbers as "G. I. Jive" and "Duration Blues."

In 1942 Mercer expanded his career as songwriter and performer to include the role of businessman when he and colleagues Glenn Wallichs (owner of a Hollywood music store) and Buddy De Sylva (then of Paramount Pictures) founded Capitol Records, Inc. Mercer served as Capitol's first president, and despite shellac shortages, union disputes and the fact that the most popular artists were already signed to other labels, the young company prospered. By the mid-40s Capitol was giving the Decca, Columbia and RCA Victor labels serious competition by producing one-sixth of all the records sold in the United States. Under Mercer's guidance Capitol signed and developed lesser-known artists and new stars, such as Nat "King" Cole, Stan Kenton, Jo Stafford, Paul Weston, Peggy Lee and Margaret Whiting. Mercer himself made a number of popular recordings on the Capitol label, most notably with Paul Weston and the Pied Pipers.

Although the decline in production of movie musicals around 1950 left Mercer with few opportunities for work on full-length scores, he remained active nonetheless. He continued ongoing collaborations with such colleagues as Robert Emmett Dolan, Harold Arlen, Rube Bloom and Hoagy Carmichael and began new associations with others such as Gene De Paul and Henry Mancini. His film scores during this period included Daddy Long Legs (1955), and stage productions included Top Banana (1951) and Li'l Abner (1956). Mercer attained distinction as a songwriter by receiving Oscars for three more of his songs between 1951 and 1962, namely "In The Cool, Cool, Cool Of The Evening" (1951), "Moon River" (1961) and "Days of Wine and Roses" (1962). Other songs from the period include "Glow-Worm," "Something's Gotta Give" and "Satin Doll."

As the musical trends of the late 1950s continued into the 1960s and early 1970s, the demand for extensive film scores of popular songs gradually dwindled. Although Mercer continued to collaborate with various songwriters, and received an Academy Award nomination as late as 1970 for the song "Whistling In The Dark," there were undeniably fewer opportunities for the type of writing for which he had been noted in the past. Nevertheless he continued to write virtually until his death, not only with many of his early collaborators but also with some of his younger colleagues ("Whistling In The Dark" was written with composer Marvin Hamlisch, and another relatively "late" song, "Two Of A Kind," was written with Bobby Darin in 1960). Mercer's last major collaborative venture was a musical called The Good Companions, produced in 1974 in collaboration with composer Andr� Previn. In the end his catalog included over 1000 songs, created over a period of 45 years on his own and in partnership with a remarkable number of America's most prominent popular composers.

Mercer underwent surgery for a brain tumor in October of 1975, and never recovered from the operation. He died on June 25, 1976 and was survived by his wife Elizabeth "Ginger" (Meehan) Mercer, to whom he was married in 1931, and their two children, Georgia Amanda (known as "Mandy") and John Jefferson (known as "Jeff").

Biography of Ginger Mercer

Ginger Mercer was born Elizabeth Meltzer on June 25, 1909 in Brooklyn, New York, one of three daughters born to Anna and Joseph Meltzer. Specially gifted from childhood, Ginger studied piano and dance and made her stage debut at age 16 under the stage name "Ginger Meehan." From the mid-1920s through approximately 1930 Ginger appeared as a dancer in numerous shows, including Honeymoon Lane (1926), in which Kate Smith made her debut, and the 1930 production of Ruth Selwyn's Nine-Fifteen Review.

While a member of the cast of the Garrick Gaieties of 1930 Ginger met an aspiring actor named Johnny Mercer, who had moved to New York from Savannah, Georgia to try his hand at a show business career. Mercer had hoped to win a role in the Gaieties, but instead placed one of his songs in the show and met Ginger, his future wife. Their courtship continued throughout 1930 and 1931, complicated by the separations they endured as each of their shows toured from city to city, and the two were finally married in New York City on June 8, 1931. They raised two children, Georgia Amanda (known as "Mandy," the inspiration for the Mercer song "Mandy is Two") and John Jefferson (known as "Jeff"), during a marriage that lasted 45 years, until Johnny's death on June 25, 1976.

Following her husband's death, Ginger traveled widely and spent much of her time promoting her husband's legacy. In 1982, she founded the Johnny Mercer Foundation, a charitable foundation that awards grants to songwriters and contributes funds to charities and non-profit organizations in the arts, to selected medical sciences, and to projects commemorating Johnny Mercer.

Index Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the Georgia State University Library online catalog (GIL). Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.

Mercer, Ginger, 1909-
Mercer, Johnny, 1909- --Archives
Popular music--United States
programs, theater
sheet music


Restrictions on Access

Unrestricted access.

User Restrictions

Researchers must agree to abide by the restrictions stated in "Notice Regarding Use of the Johnny Mercer Papers and the Johnny and Ginger Mercer Papers" (available on the Special Collections website at and in the reading room). All requests subject to limitations noted in departmental policies on reproduction.

Administrative Information


[item], [Box title], [series title], Johnny and Ginger Mercer Papers, M002, Popular Music Collection. University Library, Georgia State University, Atlanta.

Acquisition Information

Donated by Mrs. John H. (Ginger) Mercer.

Related Material

Related materials in this repository: Johnny Mercer Papers, M001 and Ginger Mercer Papers, M003; Popular Music Collection.

See Johnny Mercer pages, Popular Music Collection website, for further information about related collections.

Separated Material

Separated material: During processing, books were separated to the Popular Music book collection, and oversize materials and artifacts to separate locations. See List of Separated Material following Detailed Description of the Collection.

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